Seed heads approach 15 inches in length and have spiky florets that become tiny seeds. To purchase, visit uky.edu/ag/forages. Baylor, like Saratoga, is a high-yielding and persistent variety in Pennsylvania. Each leaf may be 11 to 17 inches long. Fleet Meadow Brome also has excellent palatability and is a super dry weather plant. At a Glance | The Good Drink: Keeping Horses Hydrated, incredible pony gelding for your christmas, University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Recipes for Success: Formulating Equine Diets, Dynamic Endoscopy to Assess Airway Function. He is a real solid compact…. It grows well on moist soils and forms a sod. Brome is closer in appearance to orchard than timothy, in appearance. In addition, older stands may easily become dense and sod-bound, resulting in markedly lower productivity. Hay is basically dried vegetation: usually a legume such as alfalfa or clover, or a grass such as timothy or brome. The best way to prevent these problems is to keep the stand healthy and able to compete, through fertilization and proper management. It is impossible to always meet all of the criteria; however, some are much more important than others. It grows 15 to 30 inches high and flowers during late spring and early summer in an open panicle (Figure 1). Want more articles like this? Sign up for the Bluegrass Equine Digest e-Newsletter. Several weeks before planting begins, germinating weeds should be discouraged through light disking, herbicide application or other preventative measures. What do I do about broomsedge This has been a common question the last few weeks as this is the time of the year that broomsedge is quite noticeable. It should not be grazed or cut shorter than four inches and works best as part of a rotational-grazing program. Germination Period of Timothy Grass. Cheatgrass (downy brome), Bromus tectorum (invasive) and Japanese brome, Bromus japonicus (invasive) – Cheatgrass and Japanese brome tend to be smaller plants than smooth brome. The leaf blades are hairless, smooth and pale green. The above list shows what horsemen often look for in good hay, but a more detailed look at the importance of these criteria is needed. usually do not joint; therefore, sprouts are the primary grazing guide. Photo by Mike Collins, Iowa State Press. Animals should be concentrated in one pasture for a period of time determined by forage availability. However, liquid nitrogen and urea may volatilize if applied before November or after February. Brome has a rolled vernation, hairy sheaths and blades as well as a distinctive “watermark” (or W-shaped) on its leaves as seen below in Photo 1. Seed yields typically range from 300 to 1,000 pounds per acre, but a stand older than two years may exhibit production problems. It will green up again in the fall as the temperature begins to cool down. It is … The presence of a w-shaped watermark midway between the collar and the tip of the leaf blade is also an identifying characteristic (Figure 2). It is well suited for dry hay production and has been the leading variety in many university trials across the country. The longer the hay is stored and the more yellow it becomes, the more it looses its nutritional value, especially essential minerals for horses. The lack of smooth bromegrass persistence in such mixtures is related to management decisions that favor alfalfa. Use our feedback form for questions or comments about this publication. What the Horse Owner Needs to Know 5. The hay is often clipped too early or too short, thereby removing the growing point of the smooth bromegrass. Good quality hay is clean and dry. Posted by University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment | Dec 17, 2015 | Article, Pasture and Forages. 1. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. After broadcasting 15 to 20 pounds of pure live smooth bromegrass seed, the cover crop should be seeded and the bromegrass seed covered. They are commonly known as bromes, brome grasses, cheat grasses or chess grasses.Estimates in the scientific literature of the number of species have ranged from 100 to 400, but plant taxonomists currently recognize around 160–170 species. Despite its disadvantages, smooth bromegrass lends itself to a variety of purposes, especially when combined with a legume such as alfalfa or red clover. It is highly palatable. When managing smooth bromegrass pastures or hayfields, allow a rest period after grazing or harvesting for long-term stand survival. Seed production is another alternative. Good hay will be uniformly green and sweet smelling, with no brown spots or moldy portions. The tall orange-brown stems stand in contrast to the new green growth we desire to see. Horse breeding from planning through foal care, Horse-health-problem risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, Design and maintain a healthy horse operation, Prevention and treatment for problems of the equine foot, How to care for the basic health needs of horses, Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of leg lameness, Proper feeding practices for foals, adult horses, and older horses, All aspects of caring for performance horses, News and issues for equine health professionals, Discussions about the welfare of our equine friends, Two UK Venture Studio Bootcamp Teams Earn Top Awards. Seedlings of smooth bromegrass experience less competition from weeds in the fall and will become fully established the following spring, enabling them to endure the next summer. Webcast | Horse Under Stress? Smooth bromegrass seed should be harvested when the culm, or stem just below the seed head, has matured and dried out, ideally on a day when the humidity is less than 50 percent. Fleet Meadow Brome offers a similar yield to traditional Smooth Bromegrass but has a distinct advantage because it will regrow quickly, right through the season. Orchard, brome and timothy hay have no grain, per se. Close grazing in fall may also cause depletion problems the next spring. At first glance, it looks like the popular timothy grass, but a close inspection can tell you that it's really foxtail. Furthermore, summer pasturing will result in overgrazing unless the brome pasture has been understocked throughout the spring. During Pennsylvania summers, many pastures and hayfields contain an intruder. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. It's mostly green with some small purple/bluish blossoms mixed in that are alfalfa. The soil should also be tested to determine if it is too acidic or deficient in potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The sheath is split with the margins overlapping. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. Use Esc key to go back to input search field. If the stand is grazed in the fall, 30 to 40 pounds of the N should be applied in late August or early September, with the rest used before the soil freezes in November or December. Because of its highly developed root system, smooth bromegrass is resistant to temperature extremes and drought. Information in the Grass Guides found primarily in “Identification and Adaptation” by Ozzie Abaye. Other legumes have different colours; cicer milkvetch has creamy white flowers, birdsfoot trefoil bright yellow, and … To ensure that the seedlings establish themselves properly, the soil should be fertilized with 30 to 40 pounds of nitrogen (N) per acre. With flaxen mane and tail and four white socks. It's important to cover that risk with the availability of quality, palatable hay at a good price.. Krista Lea, MS, coordinator of UK’s Horse Pasture Evaluation Program within the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences; Ann Marie Kadnar, an undergraduate student in UK’s Equine Science and Management Program; and Ray Smith, PhD, professor and forage extension specialist within UK’s Department of Plant and Soil Sciences provided this information. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Stay on top of the most recent Horse Health news with, Stunning unusual chestnut roan gelding. Interest in the species flagged for a time but re-emerged when smooth bromegrass proved to be more resistant to the Depression-era droughts than many other introduced grasses. Saratoga, a variety recommended for many years in Pennsylvania, is a vigorous, high-yielding, and persistent variety adapted to well-drained soils. If you continue to use the site, we'll assume you're okay with this. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. In addition, excessive fertilization may lead to problems ranging from lodging during harvest to grass tetany and nitrate-N toxicity. This hay is high in protein, but lower in calcium than legume hay. The forage quality of smooth bromegrass is higher than that of most other cool-season grasses such as orchardgrass or tall fescue; crude protein levels in smooth bromegrass often exceed 12 percent if it is harvested in the boot stage. Although smooth bromegrass responds positively to nitrogen rates of up to 275 pounds per acre, applying between 80 and 150 pounds per acre usually produces the highest economic return (Figure 3). The stubble can also be collected but is much less nutritious than earlier-season hay. At the seedling stage brome grass may be confused with wild oats (Avena spp.) So grass hay frequently is ranked lower than it … Standing hay is a grass and legume mix that is let to mature at 3 to 4 feet tall. The grass is vulnerable to overuse during its stem elongation and heading stages. The Horse’s experts answer your questions during a monthly live audio event. Figure 3Maximum economic return from the application of nitrogen to smooth bromegrass occurs between 80 and 150 pounds per acre. A palitable hay that horses like the taste of, this is the hay often used to make cubes & pellets. The plant has a shallow, fibrous root system and the lower internodes develop to form a bulb which stores carbohydrates. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884. Of these, a September planting is the most likely to be successful. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884. This N may come from any one of a number of sources, such as liquid nitrogen solutions, urea or ammonium nitrate. This kind of drill has a toothed picker wheel rather than a fluted wheel, which enables it to accommodate chaffy seed. With mid-summer dry weather, there's always the possibility of parched pastures. Barfleo is an intermediate maturing variety with good spring production. These criteria are valuable as long as they are put into perspective. Smooth bromegrass-alfalfa also makes excellent quality hay. It is nutritious and palatable to horses, but does not tolerate close and frequent grazing; therefore, it is frequently found along fencerows of horse pastures. However, smooth bromegrass recovers poorly from cutting because its tiller apices, or tips, are vulnerable to removal. Because of this, a native-grass drill is the best way to drill smooth bromegrass. As with many other aging issues, this can be addressed through the application of N. In summary, smooth bromegrass can be a valuable cool-season grass, especially in conjunction with a legume such as alfalfa. 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And silage when basal sprouts appear at the soil of a rotational-grazing program if is. And toggle through sub tier links laboratory and follow their recommendations especially for legumes like alfalfa Iowa State (! Pasturing will result in overgrazing unless the brome pasture has been collected, the seed should be mowed to infiltration...