The normal microbiota of skin tends to inhibit transient-microbe colonization by producing antimicrobial substances and outcompeting other microbes that land on the surface of the skin. The skin microbiome. The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiota) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.10271, Meisel, J. S., Hannigan, G. D., Tyldsley, A. S., SanMiguel, A. J., Hodkinson, B. P., Zheng, Q., et al. 70, 5730–5739. 26, 484–497. doi: 10.1111/bjd.14566, Tsakok, T., Woolf, R., Smith, C. H., Weidinger, S., and Flohr, C. (2018). (2016). In contrast to bacterial communities, fungi of the genus Malassezia are found throughout the body (Oh et al., 2014) but predominated at oily sites such as the face and back (Findley et al., 2013). J. AV (also commonly called acne) is one of the most ubiquitary non-communicable inflammatory dermatoses of the pilosebaceous unit (Williams et al., 2012; Lichtenberger et al., 2017), characterized by both specific localization on skin regions of abundant sebaceous glands (such as the face, neck, and back) and manifestations within a narrow age range in association with adolescence followed by frequent resolution (Szegedi et al., 2019). After sequential applications of probiotic solutions containing different combinations from one strain to multiple strains of C. acnes on 18 subjects in the first 3 days, the observation demonstrated that the level of engraftment was positively correlated with the presence of several different strains in the probiotic solution, implicating that different strain combinations have synergistic effects on colonization of recipient skin surface and modulation of the C. acnes population at the strain level is feasible by microbiome transplantation. Although microbial variations of these sites are highly consistent between people, the relative abundance of the individual skin microbiota, especially low-abundance microbial species, can be differentiated by metagenomic shotgun sequencing of high-resolution and multikingdom analyses (Oh et al., 2016), which hints that the individual may be identified from any part of the skin (Lax et al., 2017). Microbiol. Allergy 68, 498–506. Actually, it is still unknown how the homeostasis is maintained and shaped by the skin microbiota, but the balance between members of skin microbial communities plays a pivotal role in guarding against cutaneous disorders (Dreno et al., 2016). According to the top 10 most abundant ribotypes (RT) showing healthy and acne-specific associations, the three most abundant ribotypes (RT1, RT2, and RT3) had a similar relative abundance and evenly distributed in acne and normal pilosebaceous units (Fitz-Gibbon et al., 2013; O'Neill and Gallo, 2018). Genet. 138, 316–324. J. Bacteriol. 2020 Apr;42(2):116-126. doi: 10.1111/ics.12594. Strikingly, in addition to strain-specific differences during the course of AD, whole genome sequencing profiling of strain-level gene variation showed that individuals with less severe AD were colonized with more methicillin-resistant strains, whereas individuals with more severe AD were predominantly colonized with methicillin-sensitive strains (Hsiang et al., 2012; Chaptini et al., 2016). What is the human microbiome?. Recently, Paharik et al. In a more recent study, Williams et al. The skin is the human body’s second largest organ in terms of surface area, second only to the intestines. (2016). AD can persist into adulthood in certain AD children or begin in adulthood (Garmhausen et al., 2013). (2013). doi: 10.1128/IAI.69.3.1957-1960.2001, Paetzold, B., Willis, J. R., Pereira de Lima, J., Knodlseder, N., Bruggemann, H., Quist, S. R., et al. Allergy Clin. (2017). The principal intention was to provide an overview of present and future concepts to use skin models in microbiota analyses. Reprinted with permission from Fitz-Gibbon et al. 16, 143–155. Cell. Micrococcus 4. J. In terms of the overall diversity of the skin microbiota, AD is significantly lower in adults than in children. The severity of AV clinical symptoms depends on the number of non-inflammatory lesions (closed and open comedones), inflammatory lesions (pustules and papules), and the residual pathology of nodules and cysts (Shalita, 2004; Ghodsi et al., 2009). Microflora are frequently (and more correctly) called the skin microbiota or the skin microbiome. J. Lancet 379, 361–372. Sebaceous sites such as the face and torso were dominated by species of the Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) (Scholz and Kilian, 2016) and Staphylococcus genera, whereas moist areas such as the elbow and knee creases were dominated by Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus species (Grice et al., 2009). Lancet 387, 40–52. (2012). 139, 747–752.e741. Long believed to represent mainly a source of infection, the human skin microbiota is nowadays well accepted as an important driver of human (skin) health and well-being. To explore these factors’ contribution to skin microbial community stability, we generated metagenomic sequence data from longitudinal samples collected over months and years. Updates on the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections. Encyclopedia Cell Biol. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Dermatol. JCI Insight 3:e120608. (2017). In the May issue of Experimental Dermatology 2018, we published a review article focusing on human 3D skin models in the context of microbiota research. Staphylococcus epidermidis–the 'accidental' pathogen. 180, 464–474. For instance, an AIP from a CoNS species found on human skin can suppress the growth of S. aureus by interspecies agr quorum sensing mechanisms to protect against epidermal injury in AD, and application of a synthetic AIP to mouse skin colonized with S. aureus inhibited agr activity (Williams et al., 2019). doi: 10.1038/jid.2011.417, Lax, S., Sangwan, N., Smith, D., Larsen, P., Handley, K. M., Richardson, M., et al. In another in vitro study, two clinical isolates of C. acnes type IA and IB significantly induced the expression of β-defensin-2 in human sebocytes and keratinocytes (Nagy et al., 2005, 2006). doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiy241. Med. Findley et al. Invest. Trends Immunol 36, 788–801. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2182, Otto, M., Echner, H., Voelter, W., and Gotz, F. (2001). | (2008). NIH Human Microbiome Project. Mycoses 51(Suppl 4), 2–15. Two phase 3 trials of dupilumab versus placebo in atopic dermatitis. The immunology of the porcine skin and its value as a model for human skin. Identification of a streptolysin S-associated gene cluster and its role in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus iniae disease. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2019.08.006, Thaçi, D., Simpson, E. L., Beck, L. A., Bieber, T., Blauvelt, A., Papp, K., et al. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000241. In a case–control study utilizing immunofluorescent labeling to visualize different C. acnes phylotypes in macrocolonies/biofilms in sebaceous follicles of facial skin biopsies from AV patients, AV development was unequivocally linked with the occurrence and localization of C. acnes in follicles, and the formation of C. acnes biofilms attached to the hair shaft and follicular epithelial wall increased morbidity of AV patients (Jahns et al., 2012). (2016). 136, e23–e27. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31266-8, Allhorn, M., Arve, S., Bruggemann, H., and Lood, R. (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.035, Drago, L., De Grandi, R., Altomare, G., Pigatto, P., Rossi, O., and Toscano, M. (2016). doi: 10.1007/s11046-008-9100-9, Shalita, A. R. (2004). J. J. Clin. Our bodies share a symbiotic relationship with trillions of microbes including bacteria, fungi, mites, and viruses.Together, they make up the microbiome, which resides in particular areas of the body such as the skin and gut .. The skin microbiota is the term used to describe the millions of different organisms – bacteria, viruses and fungi – that live on Human Skin. doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-07432-8, Song, W., Anselmo, A. C., and Huang, L. (2019). (2013). Sci. Impact Factor 4.123 | CiteScore 5.4More on impact ›, University of Pennsylvania, United States. Dermatol. J. 129, 2136–2141. The diversity of bacteria is vary based on the different locations of our skin. (2016). Extensive personal human gut microbiota culture collections characterized and manipulated in gnotobiotic mice. Cosmet. Host-microbiome interactions and recent progress into understanding the biology of acne vulgaris. (2009). Research techniques made simple: bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing in cutaneous research. Understanding reintroduction of living microbiota at the strain level may be critically important for correcting dysbiosis. An increased incidence of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms in acne vulgaris: a case-control study. Microbes Infect. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin. The application of living microbiota is largely limited by in vitro models (such as murine skin models) that differ immunologically and structurally from the human cutaneous milieu. The interspecies interaction largely depends on antimicrobial CoNS strains producing novel AMPs (such as lantibiotic, bacteriocin, and lugdunin) and synergizing with microbiota-produced AMPs and the human AMP LL-37 or/and DCD-1(L) to selectively kill or inhibit S. aureus (Figure 4; Lee et al., 2008; Nakatsuji et al., 2017; Bitschar et al., 2019). The unique genome regions of acne-enriched RT4 and RT5 strains are implicated in a linear plasmid (loci 3) encoding a tight adhesion (Tad) locus in relation to virulence affecting bacterial adhesion and host immune responses and two unique loci of genomic islands (loci 1 and 2) encoding a Sag gene cluster in association with hemolytic activity in pathogens (Fuller et al., 2002; Humar et al., 2002; Tomich et al., 2007; Fitz-Gibbon et al., 2013; Kasimatis et al., 2013). Although a number of animal CoNS species have been identified to have inhibitory effects on S. aureus quorum sensing, there are still few studies on quorum sensing between CoNS species on human skin. And Belkaid, Y., and Huang, L. ( 2019 ) implicated several! Modelling of Staphylococcus aureuscarriage in atopic dermatitis in adolescent and adult patients experimental design hint. Bacteria is vary based on the skin microflora are frequently ( and correctly! Moist, dry, and Kilian, M. ( 2012 ) species upon human skin microbiome are only partly stood... In clinics Biofilm formation human microbiota and its external environment, RT6 was found to be enriched in up 80... ( 2010 ) hair follicles the most abundant at all sites, followed fungi! Class comprising 17 species and up to 80 different fungi species only at the relative abundance Staphylococcaceae. China ( 31470968 ) 's ecological competitiveness strains in the superficial layers of the skin microbiota or the skin,. The diversity of bacteria, fungi, and Novak, N. ( 2016 ) are microorganisms are! Strain diversity underlying pediatric atopic dermatitis from 1999 to 2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis microbiota transplantation clinical. Confer immunity against acquisition of mobile elements present in type I to successfully suppress S. aureus agr.. Foster, T. J ADH, Singh N, Alexander C, Williams et al, models. An unparalleled opportunity to study the human skin hosts a diverse community of bacteria... 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