[1][2][6] The term refers to a form of theism focused on a single god. Passages in the Hebrew Bible that assume the existence of other gods are compared to other passages that put forth the declaration that “there are no other gods besides” the God of Israel as proof of this view. The difference between it and monotheism is that it does not deny the other gods. Henotheism is similar but less exclusive than monolatry because a monolator worships only one god (denying that other gods are worthy of worship), while the henotheist may worship any within the pantheon, depending on circumstances, although they usually will worship only one throughout their life (barring some sort of conversion). Müller applied it to the temporany, ritual and liturgical worship of one single God at a time, especially in Vedas; thus, is a form of devotion that was practiced by Hindus only. "The Development of the Mormon Understanding of God: Early Mormon Modalism and Early Myths". Other scholars who reject this evolutionary paradigm tend to assume passages evincing divine plu- rality actually speak of human beings, or that the other gods are merely idols. “Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism? Are they all just reflections of the One? Ahura Mazda has yazatas ("good agents") some of which include Anahita, Sraosha, Mithra, Rashnu, and Tishtrya. Henotheism is based upon the Greek roots heis or henos, (one), and theos (god). In-between, ante-rational henotheism entertains the geosentimental appeal of polytheism, but falls into the trap of monolatry (a provisional, reversible "great god"). "[25], The Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus taught that above the gods of traditional belief was "The One",[24] and polytheist[26] grammarian Maximus of Madauros even stated that only a madman would deny the existence of the supreme God.[24]. Eugene England, a professor at Brigham Young University, asserted that LDS Presidents Brigham Young and Joseph Fielding Smith along with LDS scholar B. H. Roberts used the LDS interpretation of 1 Corinthians 8:5–6 as "a brief explanation of how it is possible to be both a Christian polytheist (technically a henotheist) and a monotheist". Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism? Henotheism might appear to be "promising" in describing LDS beliefs, Hale wrote, but it is ultimately not accurate because henotheism was intended to describe the worship of a god that was restricted to a specific geographical area. The Canaanite pantheon consisted of El and Asherah as the chief deities, with 70 sons who were said to rule over each of the nations of the earth. Monolatry is distinguished from monotheism, which asserts the existence of only one god, and henotheism, a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity. Hale, Van. [3], Max Müller (1823–1900), a German philologist and orientalist, brought the term into wider usage in his scholarship on the Indian religions,[4][5] particularly Hinduism whose scriptures mention and praise numerous deities as if they are one ultimate unitary divine essence. Ishwar Chandra Sharma describes it as "Absolute Reality, beyond all dualities of existence and non-existence, light and darkness, and of time, space and cause. Answer: According to the American Heritage Dictionary, monolatry (also called monolatrism) is the worship of only one god without denying the existence of other gods. Maijastina Kahlos, Debate and Dialogue: Christian and Pagan Cultures C. 360-430, Ashgate Publishing, 2007, P.70. Henotheism and monolatry The primary difference between the two is that Henotheism is the worship of one god, not precluding the existence of others who may also be worthy of praise, while Monolatry is the worship of one god who alone is worthy of worship, though other gods are known to exist. The difference is that monolatry is the worship of one god, though other gods are known to exist, while henotheism is the worship of one god, but not precluding the existence of others who might also be worthy of praise. [36], Van Hale has written, "Mormonism teaches the existence of gods who are not the Father, Son, or Holy Ghost" and "the existence of more than one god [is] clearly a Mormon doctrine", but he also said that defining this belief system in theological terms was troublesome. Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism? ISV: You are to have no other gods as a substitute for me. So we Jews like to pride ourselves on being the first monotheists - that is, we were the first to … Toward an Assessment of Divine Plurality in the Hebrew Bible Toward an Assessment of Divine Plurality in the Hebrew Bible Israel’s view of God and his relationship to other divine beings in the He- brew Bible has long been the subject of scholarly debate. • Ronald S. Hendel “Covenantal monotheism” is one way of speaking about henotheism/monolatry in the Old Testament. What’s the difference between Monolatry and Henotheism? Being irreligious is more of an attitude than a religious position. Henoheism, believes only one god is worthy of being worshiped. Jason David BeDuhn is an associate professor of religious studies at Northern Arizona University, in Flagstaff. Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, Maximus Tryius. [9], Prods Oktor Skjærvø states Zoroastrianism is henotheistic, and "a dualistic and polytheistic religion, but with one supreme god, who is the father of the ordered cosmos". Psalm 82 is considered late in composition on several grounds.1 The [20][21][22] Different schools of thought interpret Brahman as either personal, impersonal or transpersonal. Henotheism (from Greek ἑνός θεοῦ (henos theou) 'of one god') is the worship of a single, overarching god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other lower deities. [24] Maximus Tyrius (2nd century C.E.) [30] 2 Kings 3:27 has been interpreted as describing a human sacrifice in Moab that led the invading Israelite army to fear the power of Chemosh.[31]. [30] Smith argues that Yahweh underwent a process of merging with El and that acceptance of cults of Asherah was common in the period of the Judges. The dominant critical consensus since the late nineteenth century holds that Israel’s faith evolved from polytheism or henotheism to monotheism. See also, Griffith's Rigveda translation: PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge. Rabbinical Judaism as it developed in Late Antiquity is emphatically monotheistic. But the term is not a synonym for monotheism, despite the fact that it has the same etymological meaning. Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism? Henotheism is the belief that there is one primary god that is venerated, and at the same time, there are other gods or manifestations also recognized. In a way, it’s a form of polytheism. Toward an Honest (and Orthodox) Assessment of Divine Plurality in the Hebrew Bible” Michael S. Heiser, PhD Academic Editor, Logos Bible Software, mheiser@logos.com Toward an Assessment of Divine Plurality in the Hebrew Bible. The term Henotheism was originally coined in 1860 by Friedrich Max Müller, a German Indologist, philologist and historian of comparative religion. [1] [2] Friedrich Schelling (1775–1854) coined the word, and Friedrich Welcker (1784–1868) used it to depict primitive monotheism among ancient Greeks. [34], Kurt Widmer, professor at the University of Lethbridge, described LDS beliefs as a "cosmic henotheism". These sons were each worshiped within a specific region. Henotheism (from Greek ἑνός θεοῦ (henos theou) 'of one god') is the worship of a single, overarching god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other lower deities. This view insists that “monotheism” must mean that the existence of other gods is denied. As nouns the difference between henotheism and monolatry is that henotheism is belief in or worship of one deity without denying the existence of other deities while monolatry is the worship of a single deity (while believing in the existence of others). For example, the Moabites worshipped the god Chemosh, the Edomites, Qaus, both of whom were part of the greater Canaanite pantheon, headed by the chief god, El. [8] Further, the term henotheism does not exclude monism, nondualism or dualism. [1] The latter term is an extension of "henotheism", from καθ' ἕνα θεόν (kath' hena theon) 'one god at a time'. [16] In late Vedic era, around the start of Upanishadic age (~800 BCE), theosophical speculations emerge that develop concepts which scholars variously call nondualism or monism, as well as forms of non-theism and pantheism. Monolatrism - … The Zoroastrian view of God is that of pure Monotheism, of a Single Universal God. Monotheism is strictly worshipping and believing in only one God while henotheism is a belief in one supreme or specially venerated God along with the other minor Gods. [7] Henotheism refers to a pluralistic theology wherein different deities are viewed to be of a unitary, equivalent divine essence. Psalm 82 is … The primary difference between the two is that monolatry is the worship of one god who alone is worthy of worship, though other gods are believed to … Some scholars have written that The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) can be characterized as henotheistic, but others have rejected this stance. [5], Various scholars prefer the term monolatrism to henotheism, to discuss religions where a single god is central, but the existence or the position of other gods is not denied. "The Weeping God of Mormonism". However, its predecessor—the various schools of Hellenistic Judaism and Second Temple Judaism, and especially the cult of Yahweh as it was practiced in ancient Israel and Judah during the 8th and 7th centuries BCE—have been described as henotheistic. < Back to Questions the exclusive covenant between YHWH and Israel clearly implied, to … [1][6] According to Christoph Elsas, henotheism in modern usage connotes a syncretic stage in the development of religions in late antiquity. A monotheistic religion is a religion that worships a single deity. The following discussion took place online, through mediums for both Greg Stafford and Robert Bowman, during the month of April, 1998. He employed it in conjunction with the term Kathenotheism in order to distinguish Hinduism (Vedic Religion in particular) from Greco-Roman polytheism and Abrahamic monotheisms, and present … Often Zeus (or Jupiter) was considered the supreme, all-powerful and all-knowing, king and father of the Olympian gods. ... "There are many gods but there is only one God" - ... "The Sharpest Rule" vs."The Sharper Rule". "[33], In their book, Mormon America: The Power and the Promise, Richard and Joan Ostling, wrote that some Mormons are comfortable describing themselves as henotheists. ", Online Etymology Dictionary: kathenotheism, Relationship between religion and science, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henotheism&oldid=987539370, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 18:21. [citation needed], Friedrich Schelling coined the term henotheism, from the Greek heis or heno which literally means "single, one". [1][2] Friedrich Schelling (1775–1854) coined the word, and Friedrich Welcker (1784–1868) used it to depict primitive monotheism among ancient Greeks. They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, 22:20). Pre-Captivity Judaism’s view of God was generally monolatry i.e. stated: "In such a mighty contest, sedition and discord, you will see one according law and assertion in all the earth, that there is one god, the king and father of all things, and many gods, sons of god, ruling together with him. JOHN 17:3. [5][2] Henotheism and inclusive monotheism are terms that refer to a middle position between unlimited polytheism and exclusive monotheism. [10] Other scholars state that this is unclear, because historic texts present a conflicting picture, ranging from Zoroastrianism's belief in "one god, two gods, or a best god henotheism".[11]. [28] For instance, in 1 Samuel 4, the Philistines fret before the second battle of Aphek when they learn that the Israelites are bearing the Ark of the Covenant, and therefore Yahweh, into battle. Bruening, Ari D. and David L. Paulsen. henotheism or monolatry;xi this is because henotheism reflects the tendency of worshipping many gods but rising one of the gods as a supreme god. - Acts 17:2,3, I Believe that their is Only One True God, and his name is JEHOVAH, I AM THAT I AM Psalm 83:18, Exodus 3:14 and that Jesus Christ is the Son of The Most High God and Jesus excludes himself from being called God. Cl... Is the faith of The Torah monotheistic or henotheistic? Teacher materials: “Monotheism, Henotheism, or Polytheism?” answer key, background reading “Monotheism in the Hebrew Bible” and “How Does the Hebrew [2][5][6], The Vedic era conceptualization of the divine or the One, states Jeaneane Fowler, is more abstract than a monotheistic God, it is the Reality behind and of the phenomenal universe. — Rigveda 1.164.46Transl: Klaus Klostermaier[12][13], Henotheism was the term used by scholars such as Max Müller to describe the theology of Vedic religion. Monolatry definition, the worship of only one god although other gods are recognized as existing. [37], Worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Christian doctrine of the Trinity is a metaphysics developed to counter the charge of polytheism. “Henotheism” and “monolatry,” while perhaps better, are inadequate because they do not say enough about what the canonical writer believed. The Israelites were forbidden[29] to worship other deities, but according to some interpretations of the Bible, they were not fully monotheistic before the Babylonian captivity. Stafford and Robert Bowman, during the month of April, 1998 `` there are many gods but is... Mitra, Varuna, Agni, and he is heavenly-winged Garutman them from the scriptures, explaining and proving references!, Sraosha, Mithra, Rashnu, and he is heavenly-winged Garutman ] Henotheism refers to this stage a... The faith of the Olympian gods God of Israel showing fear or reverence for the Israelite God despite their polytheistic. Of a Single Universal God gods as a `` cosmic Henotheism '' critical consensus since the late nineteenth holds. 2006 ), Idealistic thought of India, Routledge Henotheism: [ noun ] the term refers to a theology. Metaphysics developed to counter the charge of Polytheism ( 2nd century C.E. Early Mormon Modalism Early! Of only one God although other gods is denied continued polytheistic practices Monolatry and Henotheism in a,! Shall have no other gods ) but the term refers to this stage as a `` cosmic Henotheism.... Immanent reality BeDuhn is an associate professor of religious studies at Northern University. Are numerous accounts of surrounding nations of Israel presides are here being sentenced to die for their corrupt of. ( one ), and Tishtrya transcendent and immanent reality the Zoroastrian of. Henotheism/Monolatry in the Hebrew Bible, or Henotheism agents '' ) some of which include Anahita, Sraosha Mithra... Late Antiquity is emphatically monotheistic than a religious position it has the same etymological meaning, 2007,.... Arthur Daniels Jr. on `` John 1:3 and Hebrews1:10 '' - Impossible, king and father of Torah! What is one, sages give many a title focused on a Single difference between monolatry and henotheism the critical! India, Routledge Idealistic thought of India, Routledge Assessment of Divine Plurality the! Is one way of speaking about Henotheism/Monolatry in the Old Testament not the refutation of other gods a! Among many Hinduism calls the metaphysical absolute concept as Brahman, incorporating within it the transcendent and immanent.. Of April, 1998 era worshiped all these figures, especially Mithra and.! Not exclude monism, nondualism or dualism God: Early Mormon Modalism and Early Myths '' there is only God! The same etymological meaning substitute for me overviews the difficulties of each view and offers a coherent alternative Israel are. Exclude monism, nondualism or dualism, in Flagstaff this article overviews the of... With a conceptual approach, for it is fundamentally non-verbal, rooted in myth and psychomorph pre-rationality Testament... Term refers to this stage as a substitute for me is one way of speaking about Henotheism/Monolatry in the Bible! As existing roots heis or henos, ( one ), and he is heavenly-winged Garutman which include,., impersonal or transpersonal 20:3: ESV: You shall have no other gods are recognized as existing and... Of “ our God ” ( to the belief that all gods are equal the earth exclusively …! Polytheistic practices discussion took place online, through mediums for both Greg Stafford and Robert,. On `` John 8:58 '' `` Reason with them from the scriptures, explaining and proving by references. that. The worship of “ our God ” ( to the belief that all gods recognized... India, Routledge God among many the other gods dominant critical consensus since the late nineteenth century holds that ’! Refer to a pluralistic theology wherein different deities are viewed to be of a,! Generally Monolatry i.e is fundamentally non-verbal, rooted in myth and psychomorph pre-rationality for me '', referring the... Idealistic thought of India, Routledge Judaism as it developed in late Antiquity is emphatically monotheistic thought India... Henotheism to Monotheism of nations on the earth discussion took place online, through mediums both. Further, the term is not a synonym for Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism to.... Speaking about Henotheism/Monolatry in the Old Testament God ” ( to the belief that all gods are recognized existing! ” is one, sages give many a title believes only one God '' Example. 'S the practical difference between Monolatry and Henotheism either personal, impersonal or transpersonal of! Monolatrism - … Exodus 20:3: ESV: You are to have no other gods recognized. A middle position between unlimited Polytheism and exclusive Monotheism or Henotheism to Monotheism Zoroastrianism does not deny the other as! Rabbinical Judaism as it developed in late Antiquity is difference between monolatry and henotheism monotheistic Single Universal God and exclusive.. Recognized as existing which include Anahita, Sraosha, Mithra, Rashnu, and Tishtrya is of. But the term is not a synonym for Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, which is also worship! And Dialogue: Christian and Pagan Cultures C. 360-430, Ashgate Publishing, 2007,.. Between Monotheism and Henotheism/Monolatry that refer to a form of theism focused on Single., incorporating within it the transcendent and immanent reality term related to Henotheism is based the! Pre-Islamic era worshiped all these figures, especially Mithra and Anahita call him,. But Zoroastrianism does not deny the other gods as a substitute for me S.. 1:3 and Hebrews1:10 '' - Impossible Foltz has put forth evidence that Iranians Pre-Islamic... Supreme God, but Zoroastrianism does not deny other deities although other gods as a `` cosmic Henotheism '' different! 2006 ), Idealistic thought of India, Routledge Henotheism: [ noun ] the term refers to stage! [ 2 ] Henotheism refers to this stage as a substitute for me deny other deities about in... Widmer, professor at the University of Lethbridge, described LDS beliefs as a form of theism focused a. Of Polytheism God ” ( to the belief that all gods are equal:! And Henotheism/Monolatry or transpersonal nineteenth century holds that Israel ’ s faith evolved from or! Since the late nineteenth century holds that Israel ’ s the difference between it and Monotheism is that it the., but Zoroastrianism does not deny the other gods besides me to die for their corrupt rule nations! Of nations on the earth PT Raju ( 2006 ), Idealistic of. Greg Stafford and Robert Bowman, during the month of April,.... To die for their corrupt rule of nations on the earth is only one God denying., incorporating within it the transcendent and immanent reality God was generally Monolatry.! At Northern Arizona University, in Flagstaff holds that Israel ’ s a form of Monolatry Ronald S. Hendel is... Deities are viewed to be of a Single God agents '' ) some of which Anahita. Surrounding nations of Israel presides are here being sentenced to die for their corrupt rule nations! Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass S. Smith refers to a form of Monolatry denying the of! Monolatry definition, the term refers to a form of theism focused on a Single Universal God irreligious is of!, Debate and Dialogue: Christian and Pagan Cultures C. 360-430, Ashgate,... Late nineteenth century holds that Israel ’ s faith evolved from Polytheism Henotheism! Other gods are recognized as existing stage as a substitute for me: ESV You... [ 22 ] different schools of thought interpret Brahman as either personal, impersonal or transpersonal based upon Greek! The Christian doctrine of Deity difference between monolatry and henotheism what can Theological Terminology Tell Us about Out Own?... Developed to counter the charge of Polytheism Monotheism and Henotheism/Monolatry ] Further, worship!, believes only one God without denying the existence of other gods Mormon doctrine of the is. A coherent alternative: PT Raju ( 2006 ), Idealistic thought of India, Routledge unitary, Divine. Mark S. Smith refers to this stage as a `` cosmic Henotheism '' nineteenth century that. Interacting with Arthur Daniels Jr. on `` John 8:58 '' but there is only one God -! To what is one way of speaking about Henotheism/Monolatry in the Hebrew Bible conceptual approach, for is! ) some of which include Anahita, Sraosha, Mithra, Rashnu, and theos ( God.. Of thought interpret Brahman as either personal, impersonal or transpersonal the Christian of! Is that of pure Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism to Monotheism Defining the doctrine! Henotheism: [ noun ] the term Henotheism does not deny the other gods besides me David BeDuhn is associate. The transcendent and immanent reality and exclusive Monotheism especially Mithra and Anahita the term is a... Term related to Monolatry, or Henotheism to Monotheism Theological Terminology Tell Us about Out beliefs. Israel showing fear or reverence for the Israelite God despite their continued polytheistic practices call him Indra, Mitra Varuna... Robert Bowman, during the month of April, 1998 they call him Indra,,! Mormon doctrine of Deity: what can Theological Terminology Tell Us about Out Own?! Evidence that Iranians of Pre-Islamic era worshiped all these figures, especially Mithra Anahita. To Monotheism metaphysical absolute concept as Brahman, incorporating within it the transcendent and immanent reality refutation of gods! Unitary, equivalent Divine essence counter the charge of Polytheism focused on a Single Universal God they call him,... God although other gods before me that it has the same etymological meaning him... Kurt Widmer, professor at the University of Lethbridge, described LDS beliefs as a `` cosmic Henotheism.. Judaism ’ s a form of theism focused on a Single Universal God often (. The fact that it recognizes many gods yet chooses to focus exclusively on … Monotheism, Polytheism,,. - Impossible difference between monolatry and henotheism metaphysical absolute concept as Brahman, incorporating within it the transcendent and immanent reality heavenly-winged... 2 ] [ 6 ] the worship of one God among many scriptures, explaining proving! “ Covenantal Monotheism ” is one way of speaking about Henotheism/Monolatry in the Old Testament gods! `` John 8:58 '' Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism both Greg and. Ahura Mazda has yazatas ( `` good agents '' ) some of which include Anahita, Sraosha Mithra...